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0001 Meaning of Words and Phrases
0002 Main Idea and Supporting Details
0003 Analyze Relationship Among Ideas
Cause-and-Effect Relationships
Analyze Relationships Between Ideas
0004 Critical-Reasoning Skills
0005 Apply Skills for Summarizing, Outlining, and Interpreting
Practice Reading Tests

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0003 Analyze the Relationship Among Ideas in Written Material Materials

Recognize Cause-and-Effect Relationships in a Passage

Some of the questions in the VCLA require you to identify connections between two or more sentences. These "sentence relationship" questions challenge you to do some critical thinking about how one idea relates to another.

Typically, two underlined sentences are followed by a question, either "What does the second sentence do?" or "How are the two sentences related?"

One type of relationship you might identify between two ideas is Cause and Effect.

Cause and Effect

In cause and effect relationships, the second sentence typically states an effect that is caused by the first sentence. Test for this option by adding the words “As a result,” between the sentences.

For example:

Engines with greater horsepower work harder than low-powered ones, causing components to incur greater stress and wear out faster.


Cars with greater horsepower incur higher repair costs.

What does the second sentence do?

A. It repeats the idea in the first sentence.
B. It provides an example.
C. It presents a solution.
D. It states an effect.