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Meaning of Words and Phrases
Main Idea and Supporting Details
Purpose, Point of View, and Intended Meaning
Analyze the Relationship Among Ideas
Sequence of Events or Steps
Drawing Conclusions Inductively and Deductively
Critical Reasoning Skills
Applying Study Skills
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Analyze the Relationship Among Ideas in Written Material

Identifying the Sequence of Events or Steps and Identifying Cause-Effect Relationships

The topic sentences and organizational pattern of a passage provide an outline, but the author must connect the items of the outline by showing relationships between them. The flow of words, phrases, and sentences in a passage may be done explicitly by stating them or by using signal words to alert the reader to the relationships intended. Sometimes, the relationships are implied, and it is the responsibility of the reader to notice them without the assistance of signal words.


Signal Words

A word, phrase, sentence adds to the content of the preceding one.

also, and, besides, again

A word, phrase, sentence clarifies the content of the preceding one.

in fact, in other words, obviously, of course, too, evidently

A phrase/sentence indicates a comparison to the preceding one.

Also, likewise, similar, by the same token

A phrase/sentence indicates contrast to the preceding one.

although, but, however, in contrast, nevertheless, yet, on the contrary, on the other hand

A phrase/sentence provides an example of a preceding generalization.

for example, to illustrate, for instance, thus, that is

A phrase/sentence shows location or spatial order.

below, above, near, next to, opposite, elsewhere, within

A phrase/sentence shows cause and effect.

because, as a result of

A phrase/sentence summarizes.

to conclude, in short to summarize

A phrase/sentence shows time order.

after, at that time, before, during, while, at last, now, first, second, immediately

What might be the relationship between two sentences if the second one begins with the following words?

"As a consequence . . . "

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